Sandia Module Temperature

This routine empirically computes the module temperature from the air temperature, the wind speed, and the in-plane irradiation. This model uses two empirically-determined coefficients: at establishes the upper limit for module temperature at low wind speeds and high solar irradiance, bt establishes the rate at which module temperature drops as wind speed increases.

Soiling Figure 14

Figure 34. Empirical Module Temperature Coefficients




Sandia Module Temperature Inputs


Sandia Module Temperature Outputs


1.) Compute the module temperature as a function of the available insolation, wind speed, and air temperature:

Sandia Module Temperature Algo86
2.) Compute the cell temperature. This temperature difference is typically 2 to 3 °C for flat-plate modules in an open-rack mount at a reference irradiance GRef of 1000 W/m2.

Sandia Module Temperature Algo87


King, D. L., Kratochvil, J.A., Boyson, W.L., Photovoltaic Array Performance Model, Report SAND2004-3535, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, September 1997.